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开工大吉:包容性设计(英文分享)——Yannis Paniaras


现场录像:天府TV 川台设计与品牌 

Yannis Paniaras(亚尼斯·潘尼拉斯),早年游学于意大利、芬兰和美国多个名校,习得时尚和数字体验等多学科设计与设计管理专业学士和硕士学位。进入职场以来,诺基亚和微软为其供职时间最长者。现为微软总公司跨部门创新协调总监,特别负责寻找新的业务机会,并在WINDOWS、SURFACE等各部门之间组建创新团队。

 

“包容性”设计不需要你为所有用户群体设计同样的产品…不论是实体领域还是数字产品服务,设计师都要在其中放入足够的功能。每个用户在使用不同的产品时,能够找到他们各自的需求点。包容设计从多样性的用户群体中取材,为他们提供均等的交互体验。


Within the last three to four years, within Microsoft,we have taken approaches to invest more and to understand and to come up with Microsoft-led perspective of what is inclusive design. Inclusive design was important because it is a new approach of how we come up with design solutions.   


Yesterday during the presentation, I saw many beautiful designs, a lot of which were a bit complicated, frankly speaking. They were designing for the sake of the design. I think design is moving to the next level, a level I would call meta-design. It’s not just design for the sake of design. It is not how it looks, it’s not just features. It goes beyond that. It embraces culture, human diversity and it becomes inclusive. Microsoft’s mission is to empower every person and every organization on the planet to achieve more. That’s like our embedded statement of our values. And inclusive design is connected to that.


Why is inclusive design so relevant these days? I think there are three foundations of things. One is the changing demographics. We have people living longer, into their 80s or 90s. And they are using technology. We also have an “expansive technology fabric”. Technology is everywhere. Interaction is everywhere. Younger people are using technology, The whole environment is becoming a computer. And then we have the global cultural transformations. In Europe, for example. immigration of a lot of new people that bring different cultures. You also have the mixing of cultures, religions, habits, values, blending into a new reality where you have people from young to very old. These are restrictions essentially. You can’t design any more product like the way it was designed 10 years ago. Because of these reasons, we discuss about inclusive design. We listen to what the society wants and what are the new values in the society. Most important of all, we have these responsibilities for society.


So how do you design for 7 billion and how do you design for one? These are completely opposite dimensions. But we think it’s possible. By understanding one person, eventually we can extend the solution to more people. So how do we put the theory of inclusive design into practice? One thing we need to understand is this definition from Susan Goltsman, a professor at UC Berkeley: “Inclusive design doesn’t mean you are designing one thing for all people,” that was the definition for universal design. You design one thing, and it’s good for everybody. Instead, it means “You’re designing a diversity of things into your product, whether it’s a digital product or a physical product.” You need to embed enough features, smart designs defined and combined so that everyone can take advantage of your product.  Otherwise you are creating a bias, you are excluding people from accessing your solution. This is a classical definition of inclusive design.

 

Inclusive design is also a methodology that enables and draws on the full range of human diversity to build experiences accessible from all. And there is the human dimension of empathy. You need to have the attitude to do that. Otherwise it’s very easy to fall into a practical situation where for your project you need to find a solution. What do I mean by empathy? You need to meet the people who are disadvantaged to understand their needs and then to come up with innovations and to oblige them in the product-making process.

 

In the 1980s, the WHO redefined disability. Disability is not a medical condition. Inclusive design defines it like “disability is a mismatch, a mismatch of human interactions.” That mismatch happens because of that amount of the world shown to you through the aging, changing demographics, cultural restrictions, etc. We are creating too much of a mismatch in today’s world because of all of these things. We are creating disabilities by our own bad designs essentially. Here is a practical example. There are some permanent disabilities, like someone does not have a hand. There are situational, temporal disabilities like someone has broken his or her arm and can not use it, and then the situational disability where a parent holding a baby can only have one hand to carry something. All of them are disabilities. Let’s say you are going to design a product to meet this range of people. If you find a solution for the person who has one hand—in the US, that’s approximately 26000 people—if your product works for this person here, you are going to automatically cover the 20 million people in theUSwho fall into the situation of temporary disability. If you are able to think from this angle and try to find out where the heart of the problem is, you automatically extend that benefit to a lot more people. That’s what inclusive design is about. This is the next level of design.

 

Inclusive design is a more complex approach. If you take this approach, you cover a wider range of people. So we follow these three principles.

 

One, recognize exclusion. It means we are aware of the product we have, whether it has a bias, excluding people from using it. Like a game controller for MacBooks. Many companies have something like this. This has evolved for over 20 years. It has evolved a particular shape, a particular set of patterns that requires that the user has the dexterity, hands, the mental and cognitive capability to operate it. It’s like high performance of the user. But we are starting to exclude a lot more people. So perfection leads to exclusion somehow, if it is designed in this way, the old way of designing. This is not an inclusive product.

 

Two, learn from diversity. It means going back to empathy, understanding and meeting people who are disadvantaged, meeting them in person, and then find a solution and extend it to many more people. A range of users, including the previous users that find the previous product non-operatable find barriers in the product, just like a little class here. All these students are disabled, so they don’t have the ability to operate that control, so there are researchers testing new models, understanding what they need, how would they participate in the world of gaming so that they feel like normal people, like everybody else.

 

And, solve for one and extend to many. That’s what the principle is. Solve for one means to have specific individuals with disabilities and finding a way to come up with solutions that everyone else can use. Like this first-generation product by Microsoft, it’s not the final product. We take this approach and we embed it in our product-making culture whether it’s hardware or whether it’s digital experience. Microsoft is a software company, but we do a lot in the world of hardware with our service. We see the world is merging, the physical world and the digital world are merging together, thus there is going to be a lot of restriction and a lot of mismatches. So I think a product like this is going to bear some momentum. It’s a very simple product designed to be operatable by people with some kind of disability. It can be operated with your feet. So it’s not about playing games well, it’s about participating in playing games so you don’t feel excluded.

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